Protection against electric shock in electrical engineering didactic laboratories

9th International Scientific Conference Technics and Informatics in Education – TIE 2022 (2022) стр. 109-115

АУТОР(И): Andrzej Andrzejewski, Marko Rosić

Download Full Pdf 

DOI: 10.46793/TIE22.109A


In order to rise safety level of the users in real laboratory environment related to the courses of electrical engineering the description and application examples of cover for laboratory screw terminals for use in research laboratories and experimental electrical systems and equipment is depicted in this paper. The main advantage of the described covers is the protection of laboratory personnel and students against direct contact to metal parts of terminal, which are under high voltage potentials. The paper points out the necessity for protection measures and contains examples of use of different covers for electrical machines, power converters, electric meters and other laboratory equipment.


electric shock protection; cover; insulator; electric screw terminals; laboratory accessories


  • [1] D.Lemay, P. Bazelais, T. Doleck, Transition to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, Computers in Human Behavior Reports, Vol. 4, 2021, pp. 2451–9588.
  • [2] M. Bjekić, M. et al., “Using computer for measurement and visualization of rotating magnetic field in AC machines”, Comput. Appl. Eng. Educ., Vol. 25, 4, pp.608–624, DOI:10.1002/cae.21825, Apr. 2017
  • [3] Božić, M., Rosić, M., Bjekić M., “Remote control of electromagnetic load emulator for electric motors”, Proceedings of 11th Inter. Conf. on Remote Engineering and Virtual Instr. – REV2014, Polytechnic of Porto (ISEP) in Porto, pp. 389–390. DOI: 10.1109/REV.2014.6784196,26-28 Feb. 2014
  • [4] E. Faulconer, A. Gruss, “A Review to Weigh the Pros and Cons of Online, Remote, and Distance Science Laboratory Experiences“, Inter. Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, vol. 19, no.2, April 2018
  • [5] Kaźmierkowski, M.P., Moradewicz, A.J., Unplugged but Connected: Review of Contactless Energy Transfer Systems, IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, 6 (2012), No.4, 47–55.
  • [6] Drzymała P., Welfle H., Analysis of Currents Squirrel-Cage Motor in Dynamic States During Two-Phase Short Circuit at the Terminals of Windings, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, 90 (2014), No 8, pp. 22–24, DOI: 10.12915/pe.2014.08.5
  • [7] FILIK K., ”LEMP immunity test of aircraft avionics”, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, 90 (2014), No 10, 60–63, doi:10.12915/pe.2014.10.15
  • [8] Vilcanqui O. A. C., de C. Lima A. C., de Almeida L. A., Design and Analysis of Amplifiers for Protective Relay Testing, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, 90 (2014), No 3, pp. 119–123, DOI: 10.12915/pe.2014.03.25.
  • [9] Wojtasiewicz G., Majka M., Kozak J., Experimental Investigation of 10 kVA Superconducting Transformer, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, 90 (2014), No 3, pp. 153–156, DOI: 10.12915/pe.2014.03.33
  • [10] Oziembłowski M., Dróżdż T., Wrona P., Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) Treatement on Microorganisms in the Context of Food Technology, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, 89 (2013), No 12, pp. 222–225.
  • [11] Freire N.M.A., Estima J.O., Cardoso A.J.M., A new Approach for Current Sensor Fault Diagnosis in PMSG Drives for Wind Energy Conversion Systems, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 50 (2014), No.2, pp. 1206–1214.
  • [12] Azcue-Puma J. L., Gaziolla H., Sguarezi Filho A. J., Ruppert E., A Modified Load Angle Based DTC-SVM Scheme for Three-Phase Induction Motors, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, 89 (2013), No 9, pp. 309–313, ISSN 0033-2097
  • [13] Drabek T., Lerch T., Research of Brushless Disc Motor with Permanent Magnets, Przegląd
    Elektrotechniczny, 89 (2013), No 6, pp. 199–204.
  • [14] Petry C. A., Moia J., Pacheco F. S, Alves G. R., Felgueiras M. C., Streamlining Power Electronics Teaching. Tecnologias Aplicadas a la Ensenanza de la Electronica (Technologies Applied to Electronics Teaching) (TAEE), (2014), No 11, pp. 1–8.
  • [15] Stryczewska H., Wac-Włodarczyk A., Goleman R., Nalewaj K., Giżewski T., Jaroszyński L., Komarzyniec G., Mazurek P., Diatczyk J., Electrotechnological Devices Applied in Power Engineering and Ecology, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, 89 (2013), No 5, pp. 346–352.
  • [16] Jastrzebski R. P., Smirnov A., Mystkowski A., Pyrhonen O., Cascaded Position-Flux Controller for an AMB System Operating at Zero Bias, Energies, (2014), No. 7, pp. 3561–3575.
  • [17] Yepes, A.G., Vidal, A., Malvar, J., Lopez, O., Doval-Gandoy, J., Tuning Method Aimed at Optimized Settling Time and Overshoot for Synchronous Proportional-Integral Current Control in Electric Machines, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 29 (2014), No. 6, pp. 3041–3054.
  • [18] Stefanski F., Nowak A., Minorowicz B., Pneumatic single flapper nozzle valve driven by piezoelectric tube, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, 91 (2015), No 1, pp. 13–19, doi:10.15199/48.2015.01.03
  • [19] Gieras J. F., Teaching Linear Motors and Magnetic Levitation at Graduate Level, XXth International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM), (2012), pp. 3066–3072.
  • [20] Khan, N., Rabbi, S.F., Hinchey, M.J., Rahman, M.A., Performance Evaluation of a Small Scale Variable Speed Marine Current Energy Conversion System, IEEE 27th Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE), (2014), pp. 1–5.