In science classes, experiential work with concrete material is very important. Lessons may be enriched by integrating information and communication technology (ICT) which contributes to increased motivation, as well as better knowledge and satisfaction of students. The aim of the study was to find whether students in these times prefer science lessons in the classroom with practical activities or by using the computer, and to find possible differences in opinions of children from rural versus urban environment. The research included
125 Slovenian primary school students (9-10 years old), who answered a questionnaire. The results showed that students still prefer experiential learning, performing experiments, science days and operating with real objects in comparison to using the computers (film, games, etc.). An important finding is that students prefer learning in the classroom with their classmates rather than distance learning with the help of a computer.
experiential learning, information and communication technology, student’s view, science lessons.
21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness (2020). A resource and policy guide. Retrieved February 20, 2020 from the World Wide Web https://files.eric.ed.gov/ fulltext/ED519337.pdf.
Abrahams, I. & Reiss, M., J. (2012). Practical Work: It is Effectiveness in Primary and Secondary School in England. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49(8), 1035–1055, https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21036.
Baggott, La Valle, McFarlane, A. & Brawn, R. (2003). Knowledge transformation through ICT in science education: a case study in teacher-driven curriculum development – Case – Study 1. British Journal of Educational Technology, 34(2), 183–199, https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8535.00319.
Brečko, B. N. & Vehovar, V. (2008). Teaching and learning with information and communications technology in Slovene schools. Lubiana: Educational Research Institute.
Buluş Kırıkkaya, E., Bali, G., Bozkurt, E., İşeri, Ş. & Vurkaya, G. (2010). Entertaining science summer school activities for primary students. XIV International Organization for Science and Technology Education (IOESTE) Symposium (13-18). Bled: Slovenia.
Çavaş, B., Karaoglan, B. & Çavaş, P. (2004). The use of Information Communication Technologies in Primary Science Education: A New Teaching and learning Approach. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 1(2), 34–45.
Chapman, G. D. & Pellicane, A. (2015). Growing up social – how to raise social children of the word of screens. Ljubljana: Družina d.o.o.
Chauhan, S. (2017). A meta-analysis of the impact of technology on learning effectiveness of elementary students. Computers & Education, 105, 14-30, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.11.005.
Cox, M., Webb, M. E., Abbott. C., Blakeley, B., Beauchamp. T. & Rhodes, V. (2004). ICT and pedagogy: a review of the research literature. Coventry and London. British educational Communications and Technology agency / Department for Educational Skills.
Cotič N., Zuljan D. & Plazar J. (2019). Vpliv uporabe IKT in izkustvenega učenja na mnenje učencev o naravoslovnem dnevu na morski obali. Journal of Elementary Education, 12(1), 27–48, https://doi.org/10.18690/rei.12.1.27-48.2019.
Djonko-Moore, C. M., Leonard, J., Holifield, Q., Bailey, E. B. & Almughyirah, S. M. (2018). Using culturally relevant experiential education to enhance urban children’s knowledge and engagement in science. Journal of Experiential Education, 41(2), 137–153, https://doi.org/10.1177/1053825917742164.
Dumont, H. & Istance, D. (2013). Analyzing and designing learning environments for the 21st century. V Dumont, H., Istance, D. in Benavides, F. (eds.), On the nature of learning: using the research for the inspire practice (23–36). Ljubljana: Institute of Education Slovenia. Retrieved December 10, 2019 from the World Wide Web http://www.zrss.si/pdf/o-naravi-ucenja.pdf.
Fu, J. (2013). Complexity of ICT in education: A critical literature review and its implications. International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, 9(1), 112–125. Retrieved September 2, 2021 from the World Wide Web https://www.learntechlib.org/p/111900/.
Gerlič, I. (2013). Information and communication technology in Slovenian schools-state and possibilities. Maribor: Faculty of Science and Mathematics.
Guerra, C., Moreira, A. & Vieira, R. M. (2010). Towards the definition of a teacher education program for the use of ICT tools in science teaching and learning. V B., Lazar in R. Reinhardt (eds.). Proceedings of XIV International Organization for Science and Technology Education. Bled: Slovenia, 13 do 18 June.
Holstermann, N., Grube, D. & Bögeholz, S. (2009). Hands-on activities and their influence on student’s interest. Science education, 40(5), 743–757, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-009-9142-0.
King, D. & Ritchie, M. S. (2012). Learning science thought real-world contexts. V B., Fraser, K., Tobin in C. J., McRobbie (eds.). Second international handbook of science education. London. New York: Springer.
Kler, S. (2014). ICT Integrating in Teaching and Learning: Empowerment of Education with Technology. Issues and Ideas in Education, 2(2), 255–271, https://doi.org/10.15415/iie.2014.22019.
König, J., Jäger-Biela, D. J. & Glutsch, N. (2020). Adapting to online teaching during COVID-19 school closure: teacher education and teacher competence effects among early career teachers in Germany. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 608-622, https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2020.1809650.
Li, Q. & Ma, X. (2010). A meta-analysis of the effects of computer technology on school students’ mathematics learning. Educational Psychology Review, 22(3), 215-243, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-010-9125-8.
Lowther, D. L., Inan, F. A., Strahl, J., D. & Ross, S. M. (2008). Does technology integration “work” when key barriers are removed? Educational Media International, 45(3), 195–213, https://doi.org/10.1080/09523980802284317.
McMahon, G. (2009). Critical thinking and ICT Integration in a Western Australian Secondary School. Educational Technology & Society, 12(4), 269–281. Retrieved September 2, 2021 from the World Wide Web https://www.jstor.org/stable/jeductechsoci.12.4.269.
Mehra, V. & Kaur, J. (2010). Effect of experiential learning strategy on enhancement of environmental awareness among primary school students. Indian Educational Review, 47(2), 30–44.
Millar, R., Osborne, J. F. & Nott, M. (1998). Science education for the future. School science review, 80(291), 19–24. Retrieved September 2, 2021 from the World Wide Web http://www.kcl.ac.uk/content/1/c6/01/32/03/b2000.pdf.
Moore, C. D. (2005). Is ICT being used to its potential to improve teaching and learning across the curriculum? Retrieved July 13, 2016 from the World Wide Web http://www.teacherresearch.net/tr_ma_4484_cdmoore.pdf.
National Curricular Council (1998). Retrieved February 12, 2021 from the World Wide Web https://www.gov.si/assets/ministrstva/MIZS/Dokumenti/Osnovna-sola/Ucni- nacrti/Drugi-konceptualni-dokumenti/Dnevi_dejavnosti.pdf.
OECD (2018). Results from Talis 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2020 from the World Wide Web http://www.oecd.org/education/talis/TALIS2018_CN_SVN.pdf.
Osboren, J. & Dillon, J. (2008). Science education in Europe: Critical reflections, Vol. 13. London: The Nuffield Foundation.
Schleicher, A. (2015). Schools for 21st-Century Learners: Strong Leaders, Confident Teachers, Innovative Approaches, International Summit on the Teaching Profession, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264231191-en.
TALIS Slovenia 2018 (2019). International teaching and Learning survey TALIS 2018. Retrieved February 13, 2020 from the World Wide Web https://www.pei.si/wp- content/uploads/2019/11/talis-tiskovka-45-F.pdf.
Tuzun, H., Yilmaz-Soyulu, M., Karakus, T., Inal, Y. & Kizikaya, G. (2009). The effects of computer games on primary school students’ achievement and motivation in geography learning. Computers & education, 52(1), 68–77, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.06.008.
Unicef (2020). How many children and young people have internet access at home? Estimating digital connectivity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Retrieved September 2, 2021 from the https://data.unicef.org/wp- content/uploads/2020/11/How-many-children-and-young-people-have-internet- access-at-home-2020_v2.pdf.
Volk, M., Cotič, M., & Istenič Starčič, A. (2018). Free time activities of eight years old children on computer. In Štemberger, T., Čotar Konrad, S., Rutar, S. in Žakelj, A. (eds.), Constructing innovative learning enviorments. The paper printed as a whole, 21 September 2018, Koper (225–234). Koper: University of Primorska Press.
Weert, T. J. & Tatnall, A. (2005). Information and communication technologies and real-life learning: new education for the knowledge society, 182. Springer Science & Business Media.
Weinberg, A. E., Basile, C. G. & Albright, L. (2015). The effect of an experiential learning program on middle school students’ motivation toward mathematics and science. Research in Middle Level Education, 35(3), 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1080/19404476.2011.11462086.
Zoldosova, K., & Prokop, P. (2006). Education in the field influences children’s ideas and interest toward science. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 15(3/4), 304–313, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-006-9017-3.