АУТОР(И): Jelena R. Danilović Jeremić
Often defined as a marginal word-formation process whose governing principles remain a matter of controversy, lexical blending has been examined from various perspectives over the past fifty years or so. Lexical blends have thus been described as (mostly) ephemeral linguistic creations, playful and witty, that are likely to occur in popular press, advertising, and product naming (Bryant 1974; Lieber 2010). Although we can nowadays understand the key characteristics of blends, in terms of their semantic, phonological and orthographic features, corpus-based studies of blends associated with particular types of discourse remain scarce. Television discourse is no exception. It has been cited as a rich source of blends (Mattiello 2013; Sams 2016), yet few have hitherto conducted their detailed analysis (cf. Andriani, Moehkardi 2019). Having noticed that blends frequently occur in the titles of episodes of animated television shows for children (e.g. Smeldorado in Inspector Gadget, The Three Smurfketeers in The Smurfs, Pinknic in The Pink Panther), we decided to investigate their structural characteristics. For this purpose, we collected a corpus of approximately 420 blends from the titles of animated series episodes, spanning 1950-2020. The analysis has shown that haplology and hyphenation feature prominently in the collected blends, as well as that several splinters are repeatedly used in their formation.
lexical blending, lexical blends, animated television series for children, titles of episodes, English
Adams 1973: V. Adams, An Introduction to Modern English Word-formation, Harlow: Longman.
Adams 2003: M. Adams, Slayer Slang: A Buﬀy the Vampire Slayer Lexicon, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Algeo 1977: J. Algeo, Blends, a Structural and Systemic view, American Speech, 52(1– 2), 47–64.
Algeo 1980: J. Algeo, Where do all the new words come from?, American Speech, 55(4), 264–277.
Algeo 1991: J. Algeo (ed.), Fifty Years Among the New Words: A Dictionary of Neologisms, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Andriani, Moehkardi 2019: E. Andriani, R. R. D. Moehkardi, Blends in Gravity Falls TV series, Lexicon, 78-86.
Balteiro 2013: I. Balteiro, Blending in English Charactoons, English Studies, 94(8), 883–907.
Bauer 1983: L. Bauer, English Word-formation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bauer2 1988: L. Bauer, Introducing Linguistic Morphology, Washington, D.C.: George- town University Press.
Bauer 2012: L. Bauer, Blends: Core and periphery, in: V. Renner, F. Maniez, P. J. L. Arnaud (eds.), Cross-disciplinary perspectives on lexical blending, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 11–22.
Bauer et al. 2015: L. Bauer, R. Lieber, I. Plag, The Oxford Reference Guide to English Morphology, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Böhmerová 2010: A. Böhmerová, Blending as Lexical Amalgamation and Its Onoma- tological and Lexicographic Status in English and in Slovak, Bratislava: ŠEVT.
Bryant 1974: M. Bryant, Blends are increasing, American Speech, 49(3–4), 163–184. Burridge 2004: K. Burridge, Blooming English, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cannon 1986: G. Cannon, Blends in English word formation, Linguistics, 24, 725–753. Cannon 2000: G. Cannon, Blending, in: G. Booij et al. (eds.), Morphologie: Ein inter- nationales Handbuch zur Flexion und Wortbildung/Morphology: An Interna-
tional Handbook on Inflection and Word-Formation, Vol. 1, Berlin/New York: de Gruyter, 952–956.
Carter, Nash 1990: R. Carter, W. Nash, Seeing rough Language: A Guide to Styles of English Writing, Oxford/Malden: Blackwell Publishers.
Crystal 1996: D. Crystal, Language play and linguistic intervention, Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 12(3), 328–344.
Crystal 1998: D. Crystal, Language Play, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Danilović Jeremić, Josijević 2019: J. Danilović Jeremić, J. Josijević, To blend so as to brand: A study of trademarks and brand names, Lexis, 14, 1–20.
Dobson 2009: N. Dobson, Historical Dictionary of Animation and Cartoons, Lanham: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
Fandrych 2008: I. Fandrych, Submorphemic elements in the formation of acronyms, blends and clippings, Lexis, 2, 103–121.
Gorčević et al. 2016: A. Gorčević, S. Dizdarević, A. Lukač Zoranić, Investigation of animated film blends in English discourse, Facta Universitatis, Series: Lin- guistics and Literature, 14(1), 25–40.
Hendershot 1998: H. Hendershot, Saturday Morning Censors: Television Regulation before the V-Chip, Durham/London: Duke University Press.
Hilton-Morrow, McMahan 2003: W. Hilton-Morrow, D. McMahan, The Flintstones to Futurama: Networks and prime time animation, in: C. Stabile, M. Harri- son (eds.), Prime Time Animation: Television animation and American culture, Abingdon/New York: Routledge, 74–88.
Kemmer 2003: S. Kemmer, Schemas and lexical blends, in: H. Cuyckens et al. (eds.), Motivation in Language: From Case Grammar to Cognitive Linguistics, Studies in Honour of Günter Radden, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 69–97.
Lalić-Krstin 2010: G. Lalić-Krstin, Strukturni i sadržinski aspekti novih slivenica u engleskom jeziku: kognitivnolingvistički pristup [Structural and con- tent aspects of new morphological blends in English: a cognitive linguistic approach], unpublished M.A. thesis, Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet.
Lalić-Krstin 2016: G. Lalić-Krstin, Morfemizacija krnjih leksičkih osnova u savre- menom engleskom jeziku: leksikološki i leksikografski aspekti [Morphemiza- tion of truncated lexical bases in present-day English: lexicological and lexicographic aspects], unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet.
Lee 2013: H. J. Lee, All kids out of the pool!: brand identity, television animations, and adult audience of Cartoon Network’s Adult Swim, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Iowa City: University of Iowa.
Lenburg 2009: J. Lenburg, The Encyclopedia of Animated Cartoons, New York: Facts on File.
Lehrer 1996: A. Lehrer, Understanding and interpreting blends: An experimental approach, Cognitive Linguistics, 7(4), 359–390.
Lehrer 2003: A. Lehrer, Understanding trendy neologisms, Rivista di Linguistica, 15(2), 369–382.
Lehrer 2007: A. Lehrer, Blendalicious, in: J. Munat (ed.), Lexical Creativity: Texts and Contexts, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 115–133.
Lieber 2010: R. Lieber, Introducing Morphology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. López Rúa 2012: P. López Rúa, Beyond all reasonable transgression: Lexical blending in alternative music, in: V. Renner, F. Maniez, P.J.L. Arnaud (eds.), Cross-dis- ciplinary perspectives on lexical blending, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 23–34.
López Rúa 2019: P. López Rúa, From Carmageddon and Invizimals to SimCity and Digimon: Blending Patterns in Videogame Titles, Complutense Journal of English Studies, 27, 183–204.
Marchand2 1960: H. Marchand, e Categories and Types of Present-Day English Word-Formation: A Synchronic-Diachronic Approach, München: Verlag C.H. Beck.
Mattiello 2013: E. Mattiello, Extra-grammatical Morphology in English: Abbrevia- tions, Blends, Reduplicatives, and Related Phenomena, Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter.
Mattiello 2017: E. Mattiello, Analogy in Word-formation: A Study of English Neolo- gisms and Occasionalisms, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter.
Mattiello 2019: E. Mattiello, A corpus-based analysis of new English blends, Lexis, 14, 1–28.
Mollet 2013: T. Mollet, Historical ’Tooning: Disney, Warner Brothers, the Depression and War 1932-1945, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Leeds: University of Leeds.
Perlmutter 2014: D. Perlmutter, America Toons In: A History of Television Animation, Jeﬀerson: McFarland & Company, Inc.
Plag 2003: I. Plag, Word-Formation in English, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pound 1914: L. Pound, Blends: eir Relation to English Word Formation, Heidelburg: Carl Winter’s Universitätsbuchhandlung.
Raﬀerty 2008: E. Raﬀerty, Headlines, in: B. Franklin (ed.), Pulling Newspapers Apart: Analysing Print Journalism, Abingdon/New York: Routledge.
Renner 2015: V. Renner, Lexical blending as wordplay, in: A. Zirker, E. Winter-Fro- emel (eds.), Wordplay and Metalinguistic/Metadiscursive Reflection: Authors, Contexts, Techniques, and Meta-reflection, Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter, 119-133.
Renwick, Renner 2019: A. Renwick, V. Renner, New lexical blends in The Simpsons: a formal analysis of English nonce formations and their French translations, Lexis, 14, 1–17.
Sams 2016: J. Sams, Word Formation in HIMYM, in: K.B. Fägersten (ed.), Watching TV with a Linguist, Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 161–180.
Solomon 1994: C. Solomon, Enchanted Drawings: The History of Animation, New York/Avenel: Wings Books.
Thurner 1993: D. Thurner, Portmanteau Dictionary: Blend Words in the English Lan- guage, Including Trademarks and Brand Names, Jeﬀerson: McFarland & Company, Inc.