Sustainable Energy Sector Using Waste Woody Biomass and Miscanthus in the Energy Transition /Primjenom otpadne drvne biomase i Miscanthusa do održivog sektora termoenergetike u vremenu energetske tranzicije

Energija, ekonomija, ekologija, 1, XXV, 2023, (str. 1-9)



Download Full Pdf   

DOI: 10.46793/EEE23-1.01H


The thermal energy sector is very important at this time of global energy transition. From the aspect of stable energy independence, this is especially important in countries whose energy system is based on fossil fuels, especially coal. This is why decarbonisation of the energy sector is necessary, with a partial and gradual substitution of coal with renewable fuels. However, the use of these fuels is not always possible in existing plants. This refers to the establishment of energy, economic and environmentally acceptable proportion of the co-firing of these fuels, i.e. a mixture of coal and renewable fuels. The success of the establishment of this process is a function of several variables, the dominant of which are the aggregate properties of the fuel, basic and their mixtures, including the ash properties of those fuels. With the motive of contributing to a more successful implementation of the energy transition in the thermal energy sector, and with the aim of obtaining new scientific knowledge about the characteristics of the combustion of lignite and brown coal with different renewable fuels, laboratory research was carried out. In particular, different mixtures of lignite and brown coal, waste woody biomass and Miscanthus as a fast-growing energy crop were subjected to co-firing with variable process conditions. In addition to changing the composition of fuel mixtures, the test regimes included a significant change in process temperature (1250-1450 °C) and the primary measure of staged air supply to the furnace. In these combustion conditions, the emission of undesirable and harmful components into the environment, the efficiency of combustion, and the tendency of the ash from the fuel mixture to possible soiling of the heating surfaces in the furnace were evaluated – an analysis of the characteristics of the ash samples from the reaction zone and samples of the slag and ash to the furnace. Here, in both cases of co-firing, lignite and brown coal with different types of biomass, it was shown that in real conditions it is possible to establish a sustainable primary energy conversion process from fuel with a low unburnt carbon content in the slag (unburnt carbon content, UBC<1%) as well as low CO emission, below 350 mg/mn3. At the same time, the NOx emission is below 320 mg/mnduring the co-firing of lignite mixtures at 1250 °C, and in the case of brown coal mixtures below 740 mg/mnat 1450 °C. In both cases, the net CO2 emission decreases in proportion to the proportion of biomass in the mixture, while the SO2 emission is still high, at a level of up to 2500 mg/mnfor lignite mixtures and up to 6400 mg/mnfor brown coal mixtures. None of the treated types of biomass, up to the level of applicable content in the mixture with lignite and brown coal, does not worsen the progress of the process from the aspect of possible slagging/fouling heating surfaces in the boiler.


Waste woody biomass, Miscanthus, Coal, Co-firing, Emissions, Ash


  • Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, [pristupljeno 26.02.2023]
  • RESET: European Green Deal is chance for energy transition in BiH, [pristupljeno 26.02.2023]
  • Okvirna energetska strategija Bosne i Hercegovine do 2035. godine,, [pristupljeno 20.02.2023]
  • European Union 2020: Energy Policy Review, [pristupljeno 20.02.2023]
  • Global Energy & CO2 Status Report 2019, IEA, [pristupljeno 20.02.2023]
  • , [pristupljeno 20.02.2023]
  • Zhukov, E.B., Puzirev, E.M., Menyaev, K.V. Co-combustion technology of coal and wood waste, in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Coal Combustion, Clean Coal Technology and Sustainable Development ISCC 2015, Singapore, pp. 165-172, 2016.
  • Milovanović, Z., Papić, Lj., Dumonjić-Milovanović, S., Milasinović, A., Knežević, D.M. Unconventional, improved and new technologies for the production of useful forms of energy, in Sustainable energy planning: Technologies and energy efficiency, DQM monograph library Quality and reliability in practice, Ch. 9, pp 151-178, 2017.
  • Lekić, A., Smajević, I., Hodžić, N., et al. Advanced Decentralised Energy Generation Systems in Western Balkans – ADEG, Projekt FP6, (2004-2007) National Technical University of Athens, Institut IVD Stuttgart, Fakultet Strojarstva i Brodogradnje Zagreb, Mašinski fakultet Sarajevo, Institut Vinča, IST Portugal, 2007.
  • Hodžić, N., Metović, S., Kazagić, A. Effects of primary measures in combustion chamber on cofiring of coal with woody biomass, in: Hadžikadić, M., Avdaković, S. (Eds.), Advanced Technologies, Systems, and Applications II. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, Vol 28, pp. 1102-1111, Springer, Cham, 2018.
  • Hodžić, N., Metović, S., Kazagić, A. Lab-scale tests as support to selection of sustainable coal combustion technology – Case study: Support to design of TPP Kakanj, Unit 8-, in: Karabegović I. (Ed.), New Technologies, Development and Application, NT 2018. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, Vol 42, pp 377-385, Springer, Cham, 2019.
  • The impact of coal quality on electricity production costs and the price of coal; Study; In Bosnian, Client: JP Elektroprivreda BiH d.d. Sarajevo, Executor: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Sarajevo and Mining Institute d.d. Tuzla, Sarajevo, 2014.
  • Hodžić, N. Research on co-combustion of coal and biomass aimed at reducing emissions by primary measures in the furnace, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, 2016.
  • Buddhike, N.M., Suyin, G., Carol, E., Hoon, K.N. Biomass as an energy source in coal co-firing and its feasibility enhancement via pre-treatment techniques, Fuel Processing Technology, 159, pp. 287-305, 2017.
  • Demirbas, A. Potential applications of renewable energy sources, biomass combustion problems in boiler power systems and combustion related environmental issues, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 171-192, 2005.
  • Demirbas, A. Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Carbonation Sensors, Journal Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 70-78, 2008.
  • Hodžić, N. Combustion of coal and waste wood biomass in flight with the application of primary measures in the burner – laboratory research with a proposal for application, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, 2021.
  • Kazagić, A. Research on the combustion of pulverized Bosnian coals aimed at the selection of new and improvement of existing combustion techno-logies in thermal power plants, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, 2009.
  • Nussbaumer, T. Combustion and co-combustion of biomass: Fundamentals, technologies and primary measures for emission redu-ction, Energy Fuels, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 1510-1521, 2003.
  • Final report: For the Feasibility Study on waste wood and agricultu-ral biomass firing of JP Elektroprivreda BiH Thermal Power Plants (2016), BMZ no. 2013.67.176, VPC GmbH Kraftwerkstraße 22 03226 Vetschau / Spreewald,
  • Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 November 2010 on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control) (recast) (Text with EEA relevance), [pristupljeno 21.02.2023]
  • Hodzic, N., Kadic, K., Kazagic, A. Emissions of flue gases in staged co-firing of coal with waste woody biomass using natural gas – reburning technology, International Journal of Engineering Science Invention (IJESI), Vol. 11, No. 11, pp. 15-21, 2022.
  • Hodzic, N., Kadic, K., Kazagic, A. Effects of natural gas app-lication in combustion of pulverized solid fuels – reburning technology, Energija, ekonomija, ekologija, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 1-6,
  • Purbasari, A., Samadhi, T.W., Bindar, Y. Thermal and ash characterization of Indonesian bamboo and its potential for solid fuel and waste valorization, International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Vol.5, No. 2, pp. 95-100, 2016.
  • Hodzic, N., Kazagic, A., Kadic, K. Analysis of the behavior of the ash depending on the temperature of combustion and air supply system. In: Karabegović I. (Ed.), New Technologies, Development and Application IV. NT 2021. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, Springer, Cham., Vol. 233, pp. 365-373, 2021.
  • Nussbaumer, T. Combustion and co-combustion of biomass: Funda-mentals, technologies and primary measures for emission reduction, Energy Fuels, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 1510-1521, 2003.
  • Gyeong-Min, K., Jae Hyung, C., Chung-Hwan, J., Dong-Ha, L. Effects of cofiring coal and biomass fuel on the pulverized coal injection combustion zone in blast furnaces, Energies, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 655, 2022. https://org/10.3390/en15020655
  • Hodžić, N., Kazagić, A., Metović, S. Influence of Over Fire Air System on NOx Emissions – An Experimental Case Study, Thermal Science, Vol. 23, No. 3B, pp. 2037-2045, 2019.
  • Hodžić, N., Kazagić, A., Smajević, I. Influence of multiple air staging and reburning on NOx emissions during co-firing of low rank brown coal with woody biomass and natural gas, Applied Energy, Vol. 168, pp. 38-47, 2016.
  • Kazagic, A., Hodzic, N., Metovic, S. Co-ombustion of low-rank coal with woody biomass and miscanthus: an experimental study, Energies, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 601, 2018.
  • Fakudze, S., Chen, J. A critical review on co-hydrothermal carbonization of biomass and fossil-based feed-stocks for cleaner solid fuel production: Synergistic effects and environmental benefits, Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 457, 141004, 2023.
  • Chae, T., Lee, J., Lee, Y., Yang, W., Ryu, C. Pilot-scale experimental study on impacts of biomass cofiring methods to NOx emission from pulverized coal boilers – Part 2: NOx Reduction Capability through Reburning versus Cofiring, Energies,   14, No. 20, pp. 6552, 2021.