1st International Conference on Chemo and BioInformatics, ICCBIKG  2021, (141-144)

AUTHOR(S) / АУТОР(И): Milena P. Živković, Dragoslav Nikezic, Tatjana B. Miladinović, Dragana Ž. Krstić

E-ADRESS / Е-АДРЕСА: milena.zivkovic@pmf.kg.ac.rs, dragana.krstic@pmf.kg.ac.rs, nikezic@kg.ac.rs, tanja.miladinovic@uni.kg.ac.rs

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DOI: 10.46793/ICCBI21.141Z


In this paper, the characteristics of phantoms from their origin to the latest species are considered. With the development of technique and technology, the characteristics of phantoms have also been improved, whose importance in monitoring human health is extremely important.

The first species were adapted to certain nations and precisely constructed so that sizes such as the height and mass of the phantoms were appropriate and represented the real inhabitants of those areas, that is, the inhabitants of America and Japan.

Later, female, children’s phantoms were formed, as well as phantoms of pregnant women in different stages of pregnancy. The latest generations of phantoms, voxel, and mesh phantoms, represent realistic presentations of the human body and are applied in dosimetry and radiation protection in different areas, as well as in different irradiation conditions.

The International Commission on Radiation Protection – ICRP continuously studies data on radiation doses and effects and issues appropriate protection recommendations and promotes phantoms that represent the human body and organs of great importance for the occurrence of cancer.


radiology, medical physics, male and female phantom, voxels


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